The following is the syllabus for Geography - Main Examination - Paper I and
GEOGRAPHY SYLLABUS for PAPER - 1
PRINCIPLES OF GEOGRAPHY
Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces; Origin
and evolution of the earth's crust; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical conditions
of the earth's interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics;
Recent views on mountain building; Vulcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts
of geomorphic cycles and Landscape development ; Denudation chronology; Channel
morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development ; Applied Geomorphology : Geohydrology,
economic geology and environment.
Applied Geomorphology: Geohydrology, economic geology and environment.
Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric
circulation; atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds; Monsoons
and jet streams; Air masses and fronto genesis, Temperate and tropical cyclones;
Types and distribution of precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen's, Thornthwaite's
and Trewartha's classification of world climates; Hydrological cycle; Global climatic
change and role and response of man in climatic changes, Applied climatology and
Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans; Temperature and salinity
of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits; Waves, currents and tides;
Marine Resources: Biotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs,
coral bleaching; sealevel changes; law of the sea and marine pollution.
Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion,
Degradation and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants and
animals; Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; Social forestry; agro-forestry;
Wild life; Major gene pool centres.
Principle of ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence of man on ecology
and environment; Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances; Ecosystem
their management and conservation; Environmental degradation, management and conservation;
Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental policy; Environmental hazards
and remedial measures; Environmental education and legislation.
Perspectives in Human Geography:
Areal differentiation; regional synthesis; Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism;
Quantitative revolution and locational analysis; radical, behavioural, human and
welfare approaches; Languages, religions and secularisation; Cultural regions of
the world; Human development index.
World Economic Development: measurement and problems; World resources
and their distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth;
World Agriculture: Typology of agricultural regions; agricultural
inputs and productivity; Food and nutrition problems; Food security;
Famine: Causes, effects and remedies;
World Industries: Locational patterns and problems; patterns of
Population and Settlement Geography:
Growth and distribution of world population; demographic attributes; Causes and
consequences of migration; concepts of over-under-and optimum population; Population
theories, world population problems and policies, Social well-being and quality
of life; Population as social capital. Types and patterns of rural settlements;
Environmental issues in rural settlements; Hierarchy of urban settlements;
Urban Morphology: Concepts of primate city and rank-size rule;
Functional classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence; Rural - urban fringe;
Satellite towns; Problems and remedies of urbanization; Sustainable development
Concept of a region; Types of regions and methods of regionalisation; Growth centres
and growth poles; Regional imbalances; regional development strategies; environmental
issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development.
Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography:
Systems analysis in Human geography; Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition
models; Central Place theories of Christaller and Losch; Perroux and Boudeville;
Von Thunen's model of agricultural location; Weber's model of industrial location;
Ostov's model of stages of growth. Heartland and Rimland theories; Laws of international
boundaries and frontiers.
GEOGRAPHY SYLLABUS for PAPER - 2
GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA
Space relationship of India with neighboring countries; Structure and relief; Drainage
system and watersheds; Physiographic regions; Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall
patterns, Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Floods and droughts; Climatic
regions; Natural vegetation; Soil types and their distributions.
Land, surface and ground water, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources; Forest
and wild life resources and their conservation; Energy crisis.
Institutional Factors: Land holdings, land tenure and land reforms;
Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination,
land capability; Agro and socialforestry; Green revolution and its socioeconomic
and ecological implications; Significance of dry farming; Livestock resources and
white revolution; aqua - culture; sericulture, apiculture and poultry; agricultural
regionalisation; agro-climatic zones; agro- ecological regions.
Evolution of industries; Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel,
aluminium, fertilizer, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage and
agro-based industries; Industrial houses and complexes including public sector undertakings;
Industrial regionalisation; New industrial policies; Multinationals and liberalization;
Special Economic Zones; Tourism including eco -tourism.
Transport, Communication and Trade:
Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline networks and their complementary roles
in regional development; Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade;
Trade balance; Trade Policy; Export processing zones; Developments in communication
and information technology and their impacts on economy and society; Indian space
Historical Perspective of Indian Society; Racial, linguistic and ethnic diversities;
religious minorities; major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; cultural regions;
Growth, distribution and density of population;
Demographic Attributes: Sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate,
work-force, dependency ratio, longevity; migration (inter-regional, intra- regional
and international) and associated problems; Population problems and policies; Health
Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Urban developments; Morphology
of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian cities; Conurbations and metropolitan
regions; urban sprawl; Slums and associated problems; town planning; Problems of
urbanization and remedies.
Regional Development and Planning:
Experience of regional planning in India; Five Year Plans; Integrated rural development
programmes; Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning; Command area development;
Watershed management; Planning for backward area, desert, drought prone, hill, tribal
area development; multi-level planning; Regional planning and development of island
Geographical basis of Indian federalism; State reorganisation; Emergence of new
states; Regional consciousness and inter state issues; international boundary of
India and related issues; Cross border terrorism; India's role in world affairs;
Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.
Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes, Tsunamis, floods
and droughts, epidemics; Issues relating to environmental pollution; Changes in
patterns of land use; Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental
management; Population explosion and food security; Environmental degradation; Deforestation,
desertification and soil erosion; Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest; Regional
disparities in economic development; Concept of sustainable growth and development;
Environmental awareness; Linkage of rivers; Globalisation and Indian economy.
NOTE: Candidates will be required to answer one
compulsory map question pertinent to subjects covered by this paper.
Online Classroom Sessions
The course comprises of online classroom sessions for a duration of 225 hours.
Click here to check the weekly timetable schedule for the course.
Human geography - Majid Hussain (Physical geography, Human Geography, General Geography
and Geography of India)
NCERT Class VI to XII
Spectrum Geography Guide
Popularity of Geography as an optional subject
The following are the reasons why this subject is popular among students.
The study of geography involves both understanding and memorising skills.
With well-planned strategies, you can easily score well in the subject.
Since all the physical aspects of geography follow a logical sequence it is
easy to remember and comprehend.
It is a scoring subject, very much along the lines of mathematics or any science
Questions from map are straightforward and hence, it is easy to score.
With the help of the internet, one can get many visuals - animated and real
pictures - that make the subject not only easier to understand but also very interesting.
Thus, enough reference material is available.
Finally the subject deals with our own environment which we can relate to and that
is learning for life not only for the IAS exam!
As future IAS officers, this subject will also help you make the right decisions
because it makes you to look at the whole picture.
Suggestions for Preparation of Geography Optional Subject
The following are simple preparation tips to score well in the Geography - Main
Examination - Paper I and Paper II.
Study with comprehension and understanding; avoid rote learning
Since the syllabus is vast, do not just memorize facts. Make easy reference notes
to brush through the points just before the examination.
When there is a diagram, learn to draw or sketch it with all the
information and then learn to describe the diagram. This will help you write an
essay for 30/60 marks.
Highlight and memorise key words ad make simple sentences.
Regional and economic geography must be studied along with the respective maps.
Use tabular columns especially for prelim geography.
Information, facts and figures may be printed out in large fonts and stuck on a
soft board or anywhere suitable which is in constant view.
Be well-versed with India Map and World Map. Questions on these subjects repeat
Buy political and physical wall maps of the World and India or sit with the atlas
as often as possible.
Joining the course
Students can register as a regular user for any of the courses offered by Indiancivils
by making the full payment for the course online.
As a regular user, students can
Participate invirtual classroom sessions and directly interact
with the faculty and students during the online coaching classes.
Gain access to the question bank of ALLSUBJECTS
of CSAT (Prelims) .
Gain access to the pre-recorded videos of the registered courses
for 18 Months from the date of Registration.
Registered students would receive intimation about the
scheduled virtual classroom sessions on their registered mobile and
email ids. Further, an automated reminder would be
sent to the registered mobile number 10 minutes
before the online session.